Thrombocytopenia is a medical condition which is marked by low count of the blood platelets. Thrombocytes or platelets are the colorless blood cells which play an essential role in the process of blood clotting.
What these platelets do is that they stop the blood loss by forming plugs in the holes of the blood vessels, thereby causing blood clots. Now in the absence of enough blood platelets, mild to serious amount of bleeding can be caused inside your body and even underneath your skin. In some cases, reduction in blood platelets can cause very severe bleeding as well.
Signs and Symptoms of Thrombocytopenia
There are many ways to identify thrombocytopenia and some of the signs are given as follows:
- Internal and external bleedings are the most common signs of this disorder of low blood platelet count.
- Mild thrombocytopenia has no obvious signs as such and can only be identified if you get a blood test done.
- Severe case of thrombocytopenia can cause bleeding in any given part of the body and this can even lead to a condition of medical emergency. This should be treated as soon as possible.
- External bleeding that is caused due to thrombocytopenia may cause a condition called Purpura or Petechiae. Purpura is a red, purple or a brown colored bruise and this kind of bruising happens very easily and at any time. Petechiae on the other hand are small red or purple colored dots that happen to appear on the skin.
- Some signs of external bleeding are prolonged bleeding caused even due to minor cuts, abnormal vaginal bleeding, especially at the time of heavy menstrual flow and bleeding from the nose or from the mouth.
- In some cases, the bleeding is so heavy that it enters into the intestines or the brain. This is very serious and can even lead to death in some cases. Some ways to identify this kind of bleeding are given as follows:
- Headaches and other types of neurological symptoms are a way to identify heavy internal bleeding. This is a rare problem and must be discussed with the doctor immediately.
- Another way to identify internal heavy bleeding into the brain or the intestines is when there is blood in the urine or in the stool. In some cases, bleeding from the rectum also indicates heavy internal bleeding. Blood in the stool may either be red in color or may be in the form of a tarry or dark colored liquid.
Prevention of Thrombocytopenia
The following are some ways to prevent blood platelet from falling down to a low level:
- One of the ways to avoid this disease is to avoid heavy drinking. Alcohol tends to slow down the production of the blood platelets.
- One should be very careful while having medicines which tend to lower down blood platelets. These medicines raise the risk of bleeding and may lead to the thinning of blood which might eventually cause thrombocytopenia.
- Another way to prevent thrombocytopenia is to get regular compulsory vaccinations which might affect your platelets.