Sensory integration disorder is a neurological disorder which is characterized from the fact that the brain becomes incapable of integration of some of the information which is received or intercepted by the 5 basic sensory systems of the body. These sensory systems of the body detect sound, smell, sights, temperatures, tastes, pain and position of the body.
Normally, the brain forms the combined image of all the information received and reacts to it appropriately. But in the case of sensory integration disorder, the brain finds it difficult to do so.
The following are some important facts about sensory integration disorder:
1. Presence of sensory integration disorder is generally detected in young children. In normal cases, children develop motor planning and other abilities during childhood activities but when the process is disordered, the child may face problems in learning, development and other behavioral issues.
2. Those people who suffer from sensory integration disorder often face difficulty in responding or reacting to normal sensory information. They are unable to plan or organize what is to be done in an appropriate way.
3. Some of the common signs of sensory integration disorder are poor self -concept, getting easily distracted, oversensitivity to touch, sight, sound and movement, physical clumsiness, delays in speech, delays in academic achievement and inability to calm oneself.
4. There are a few ways to diagnose sensory integration disorder and for this, a physical therapist has to conduct an evaluation which involves standardized testing, structured observations and assessment.
5. By providing treatment to a person suffering from sensory integration disorder at an early age, this disorder can be managed very easily but delay in treatment may make the treatment more complex and time taking.
6. To treat sensory integration disorder, occupational therapists play a very vital role. Occupational therapists are able to provide vital sensory input to those children who have this disorder. Also those experiences which are needed to learn and grow are also provided. Generally, sensory diet is provided by occupational therapists. It includes scheduled and planned activity program which is designed to meet the needs of the nervous system of the child.
7. The exact cause of sensory integration disorder is still not known but some of the experiments conducted have shown that exposure to light and sound may be responsible for initializing sensory integration disorder.
8. There are three types of sensory integration disorders-sensory modulation disorder, sensory based motor disorder and sensory discrimination disorder. In sensory modulation disorder, one tends to over respond or under respond to sensory stimuli.
9. Sensory based motor disorder is an integration disorder in which there is development coordination disorder and postural disorder in the person who is affected.
10. Sensory discrimination disorder is that type of sensory integration disorder in which there is incorrect passing of sensory information. This may be characterized by disorganization, inattentiveness and poor performance at school. Some of the common subcategories of this disorder are visual, taste, smell, auditory and relating to movement/position.
As soon as sensory integration disorder is diagnosed, it must be treated.
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