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Urinary tract infection is a bacterial infection that affects any part of the urinary tract. Urinary tract infections are treated with oral antibiotics. Different antibiotics are available depending on the condition, whether the infection is complicated or not.
Antibiotics for urinary tract infection:
Trimethoprim is an antibiotic used in the treatment of bladder infection. The action of bacterial dihydrofolate reductase is interfered by trimethoprim and inhibits synthesis of tetrahydrofolic acid. In the de novo synthesis of DNA nucleotide thymidine, tetrahydrofolic acid is essential precursor.
Trimethoprim is used commonly in combination with sulfamethoxazole, a sulfonamide antibiotic, which inhibits an earlier step in the folate synthesis pathway.
Cephalosporins are antibiotics for treating infection of urinary tract. These are used for treating infections that are caused by susceptible organisms. First generation cephalosporins are active against gram positive bacteria. Adverse effects of this drug are nausea, rash, diarrhea and pain.
Nitrofurantoin is an antibiotic used for curing urinary tract infection. It is given seven to ten days, in cases of simple cystitis. This drug cause stomach upsets and interacts with many other drugs. Pregnant women should not use this drug.
Fluoroquinolones are the bacterial drugs that kill the bacteria actively. These antibiotics are effective against wide range of organisms, but are expensive. Pregnant women should not use these antibiotics. They have more side effects in children than other antibiotics.
Oral antibiotic treatment cures many uncomplicated urinary tract infections. After using for one week, the person can be free from infections. If the symptoms still exist, doctors suggest stopping the antibiotics and ask to provide urine sample to identify other causes.
If the infections are relapsing (caused by treatment failure within three weeks), they are treated with antibiotics for at least two weeks.